Are the neurophysical correlates of working memory deficits the result of biologically ordained structural/processing insufficiencies (maladaptive bio-development) (1) or are the neuro-physiological correlates of working memory deficits the result of a lack of neurophysical exercise/activity due to learned maladaptive processing schema? For a related example, a recent study of dyslexia moved us closer to understanding the signature of dyslexia prior to beginning reading (http://www.medpagetoday.com/Neurology/GeneralNeurology/30835) but here too the testing is far downstream from the influence of early learning. Isn’t disentangling the genetically-determined from the learning-formed much more subtle than we are acknowledging? Are the brain differences correlated with memory deficits described here exclusively the result of gene-formative processes or could there be a much deeper and richer and more subtle realm of early learning that can also result in the brain differences you are describing?
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